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Geographical Deposits of Stones

Important sources of agate are Russia (Ural mountains), Brazil, Egypt, Germany, India, Italy, Madagascar, Mexico, Uruguay and the USA (Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana).

Amethyst is mined in Brazil, Uruguay, Sri Lanka, Siberia, Canada, India, Bolivia, and Argentina and some African countries. Zambia is a significant source for amethyst. Generally, amethyst from South America tends to be available in larger sizes than African amethyst but amethyst from Africa has the reputation for having better, more saturated, color in small sizes. Very dark amethyst, mostly in small sizes, is also mined in Australia.

Bloodstone is found in India, Kathiawar Peninsula, Australia, Brazil, China, and the United States. (S. Kelley, Wyoming).

Most carnelian on the market is stained chalcedony from Brazil or Uruguay. The finest carnelian is found in India and Arabia.

Citrine is found in Brazil, Madagascar, Spain, Uruguay, Scotland, USA (California, Colorado, North Carolina, Georgia, and Nevada) and Russia. Brazil is the main source of citrine.

Exceptionally clear crystalline fluorite is mined in Cumberland and Derbyshire, England. Commercially important deposits in the United States occur in a region on the Ohio River that includes parts of Illinois and Kentucky.

Garnets are found in a wide variety of locations including Kenya, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Canada and USA. In the USA, garnet has been obtained in Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Utah, Florida, California and Virginia. The majority of today's garnet supplies come from Africa. Notable quantities of garnets have been also found in the Czech Republic and Spain. The oranges and browns of spessartite and hessonite hail from Namibia and Sri Lanka.

The most important deposits of hematite come from a sedimentary deposit: the Lake Superior district in North America. Other important deposits include Minas Gerais (Brazil), Cerro Bolivar (Venezuela), Labrador, and Quebec.

Most of the iolite available today comes from Sri Lanka, Burma, India, Madagascar and Brazil. Precambrian deposits of the Laramie Range, (Wyoming, USA) contain more than 500,000 tons of iolite.

Jadeite is found chiefly in eastern Asia in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), as well as in sections of Tibet and southern China.  This Jade is exported to China, where it is carved into gems and figures. This jade is known as "Chinese jade". Chinese jade has a higher market value than jade from other locations.
"Mexican Jade" is Jade from the large deposits in Guatemala and Mexico. This jade was also mined since the earliest of times, but does not have as rich a history as the Chinese jade.
"Russian jade" is a leek-green variety found near Lake Baikal in Russia. Elsewhere it can be found in Alaska, Mexico, New Zealand, Siberia, Turkistan and a huge haul has been found at Clear Creek, San Benito Co., California.

Jasper is common and widely distributed, occurring chiefly as veinlets, concretions, and replacements in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, as in the Urals, North Africa, Sicily, France, India, Venezula and Germany.
Some varieties are color-banded, and beautiful examples of jasperized fossil wood are found in Arizona, U.S. In the USA, jasper is also found in California, Utah and Wyoming.

The main supplies of lapis lazuli are found in the Afghanistan, Egypt, Canada, Chile, the US, and South America. The most important sources are the mines in Badakhshan, northeastern Afghanistan, and near Ovalle, Chile, where gemstone is usually pale rather than deep blue.

The most important mine is in Zaire. Notable occurrences are in Ural, Siberia, France, South Australia, Namibia and the USA (Arizona).

Moonstone is found in Brazil, European Alps, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and the USA (Pennsylvania and Virginia). Sri Lanka produces the highest quality moonstones.

Important sources of moss agate are Russia (Ural mountains), Brazil, Eygpt, Germany, India, Italy, Madagascar, Mexico, Uruguay and the USA (Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana).

Oriental pearls are found in the Persian Gulf. Other notable sources of fine-quality pearls include the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka, the waters off Celebes, Indonesia, and the islands of the South Pacific. In the Americas, the Gulf of California, the Gulf of Mexico, and the waters of the Pacific coast of Mexico have yielded dark-hued pearls with a metallic sheen as well as white pearls of good quality.
Freshwater mussels in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere have produced pearls of great value, as for example those from the Mississippi River. Pearling is a carefully fostered industry in central Europe, and the forest streams of Bavaria, in particular, are the source of choice pearls. Freshwater pearling in China has been known from before 1000 BC.
Cultured pearls: Northern Australia established its first cultured pearl farms in the 1960s, that by the mid-1970s were an established industry, producing pearl shell as well as pearls. Japan and Australia are the largest producers of cultured pearls, though Fiji also produces some.

Peridot is found in Australia, Brazil, China, Eygpt, Burma, Pakistan, Norway, and the USA (Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, and New Mexico). Much of the today's peridot comes from Arizona. Very large crystals are found in the Mogok district of Myanmar and in the Minas Gerais in Brazil. Peridot has been mined from St John's Island in the Red Sea for over 3500 years. In 1994, an exciting new deposit of peridot was discovered in Pakistan, and these stones are among the finest ever seen.

Quartz is one of the most abundant compounds found in the Earth’s surface and in most sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks, and therefore, it and its many varieties come from thousands of locations around the globe. Quartz was even found on Moon during lunar explorations! Large deposits of good quality clear quartz have been found in Brazil, France (Dauphine), USA (Arkansas). Primary deposits in the USA are in Hot Springs of Garland County, Mount Ida in Montgomery County & California-Calaveras County’s Mokelumne Hill. Sutters Mill, site of the California Gold Rush of 1848 has large deposits of quartz that had gold veins running through them and San Diego County is famous for very unique samples. New York, Herkimer County has deposits of doubly terminated quartz called Herkimer Diamonds. Elsewhere, quartz also occurs at Australia, British Columbia, Germany, India, Japan, Madagascar, Malagasy Republic, Man, Mexico, Namibia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and St. Gotthard, Switzerland.

Quartz crystals are very rare in nature but can be found in Brazil, Maine and California. In its more common, massive state, it can be found in Brazil, South Dakota, Colorado, Arkansas, California, Switzerland, Madagascar, India, Germany, Scotland, Spain, Malagasy Republic and Canada.

Smoky quartz or smokey quartz is the national gem of Scotland, where it occurs in the Cairngorm Mountains; but it can also be found in Sri Lanka, Brazil, Spain, Switzerland, Maine, New Hampshire, Alabama and Colorado.

Rich blue masses are found near Bancroft, Ontario, and nearby along the York River there are several massive occurrences of hackmanite. Thinner veins of blue sodalite are found in nepheline rocks on the Ice River, British Columbia. Litchfield, Maine, yields sodalite in smaller masses of moderate richness. Colorless crystals are found in the altered limestone blocks thrown out by the eruptions of Vesuvius. Brazil seems to be today’s major producer.

The largest deposits of tiger's eye are in South Africa, Australia, Burma, India and the United States. The best stones come from Griqualand West.

Tourmaline is found in Africa, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Namibia, Sri Lanka, and USA (southern California, Connecticut, Maine, New York and Texas). The Isle of Elba is famous for pink crystals tipped with black which are known as Moors' Heads.

Principal deposits of blue turquoise are located in Neyshabur (Nishapur), Iran. Other varieties are found abundantly throughout Western Turkistan, Egypt including the Sinai Peninsula, and Mexico. In the U.S., the mineral is worked extensively in the area of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and in parts of California, Nevada, and Arizona and these deposits have been worked upon for centuries by American Indians.

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